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Recent years have been characterized by the increasing amountofpublications in the field ofso-called ill-posed problems. This is easilyunderstandable because we observe the rapid progress of a relatively young branch ofmathematics, ofwhich the first results date back to about 30 years ago. By now, impressive results have been achieved both in the theory ofsolving ill-posed problems and in the applicationsofalgorithms using modem computers. To mention just one field, one can name the computer tomography which could not possibly have been developed without modem tools for solving ill-posed problems. When writing this book, the authors tried to define the place and role of ill- posed problems in modem mathematics. In a few words, we define the theory of ill-posed problems as the theory of approximating functions with approximately given arguments in functional spaces. The difference between well-posed and ill- posed problems is concerned with the fact that the latter are associated with discontinuous functions. This approach is followed by the authors throughout the whole book. We hope that the theoretical results will be of interest to researchers working in approximation theory and functional analysis. As for particular algorithms for solving ill-posed problems, the authors paid general attention to the principles ofconstructing such algorithms as the methods for approximating discontinuous functions with approximately specified arguments. In this way it proved possible to define the limits of applicability of regularization techniques.
Uniquely focusing on intersections of social problems, multilevel statistical modeling, and causality; the substantively and methodologically integrated chapters of this book clarify basic strategies for developing and testing multilevel linear models (MLMs), and drawing casual inferences from such models. These models are also referred to as hierarchical linear models (HLMs) or mixed models. The statistical modeling of multilevel data structures enables researchers to combine contextual and longitudinal analyses appropriately. But researchers working on social problems seldom apply these methods, even though the topics they are studying and the empirical data call for their use. By applying multilevel modeling to hierarchical data structures, this book illustrates how the use of these methods can facilitate social problems research and the formulation of social policies. It gives the reader access to working data sets, computer code, and analytic techniques, while at the same time carefully discussing issues of causality in such models. This book innovatively: *Develops procedures for studying social, economic, and human development. * Uses typologies to group (i.e., classify or nest) the level of random macro-level factors. * Estimates models with Poisson, binomial, and Gaussian end points using SAS's generalized linear mixed models (GLIMMIX) procedure. * Selects appropriate covariance structures for generalized linear mixed models. * Applies difference-in-differences study designs in the multilevel modeling of intervention studies. *Calculates propensity scores by applying Firth logistic regression to Goldberger-corrected data. * Uses the Kenward-Rogers correction in mixed models of repeated measures. * Explicates differences between associational and causal analysis of multilevel models. * Consolidates research findings via meta-analysis and methodological critique. *Develops criteria for assessing a study's validity and zone of causality. Because of its social problems focus, clarity of exposition, and use of state-of-the-art procedures; policy researchers, methodologists, and applied statisticians in the social sciences (specifically, sociology, social psychology, political science, education, and public health) will find this book of great interest. It can be used as a primary text in courses on multilevel modeling or as a primer for more advanced texts.
Quotient Space Based Problem Solving provides an in-depth treatment of hierarchical problem solving, computational complexity, and the principles and applications of multi-granular computing, including inference, information fusing, planning, and heuristic search. Drawing upon years of academic research and using numerous examples and illustrative applications, the authors, Ling Zhang and Bo Zhang provide a unique guide to computerized problem solving and granular computing. This book is a valuable guide to graduate students, research fellows, and academics specializing in artificial intelligence or concerned with computerized problem solving and granular computing. It explains the theory of hierarchical problem solving, its computational complexity, and discusses the principle and applications of multi-granular computing. It describes a human-like, theoretical framework using quotient space theory, that will be of interest to researchers in artificial intelligence. It provides many applications and examples in the engineering and computer science area. It includes complete coverage of planning, heuristic search and coverage of strictly mathematical models.
Here's a user-friendly list of words and phrases we meet soon after a computer comes to live with us. New users may not appreciate being called dummies or idiots, nor do they need to buy a big dictionary of thousands of bits of computer jargon intended for "geeks". This is as un-geeky as it gets with just 200 entries.Trust me, that's enough to get you going.
An excerpt from the beginning.
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