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Quotient Space Based Problem Solving provides an in-depth treatment of hierarchical problem solving, computational complexity, and the principles and applications of multi-granular computing, including inference, information fusing, planning, and heuristic search. Drawing upon years of academic research and using numerous examples and illustrative applications, the authors, Ling Zhang and Bo Zhang provide a unique guide to computerized problem solving and granular computing. This book is a valuable guide to graduate students, research fellows, and academics specializing in artificial intelligence or concerned with computerized problem solving and granular computing. It explains the theory of hierarchical problem solving, its computational complexity, and discusses the principle and applications of multi-granular computing. It describes a human-like, theoretical framework using quotient space theory, that will be of interest to researchers in artificial intelligence. It provides many applications and examples in the engineering and computer science area. It includes complete coverage of planning, heuristic search and coverage of strictly mathematical models.
Recent years have been characterized by the increasing amountofpublications in the field ofso-called ill-posed problems. This is easilyunderstandable because we observe the rapid progress of a relatively young branch ofmathematics, ofwhich the first results date back to about 30 years ago. By now, impressive results have been achieved both in the theory ofsolving ill-posed problems and in the applicationsofalgorithms using modem computers. To mention just one field, one can name the computer tomography which could not possibly have been developed without modem tools for solving ill-posed problems. When writing this book, the authors tried to define the place and role of ill- posed problems in modem mathematics. In a few words, we define the theory of ill-posed problems as the theory of approximating functions with approximately given arguments in functional spaces. The difference between well-posed and ill- posed problems is concerned with the fact that the latter are associated with discontinuous functions. This approach is followed by the authors throughout the whole book. We hope that the theoretical results will be of interest to researchers working in approximation theory and functional analysis. As for particular algorithms for solving ill-posed problems, the authors paid general attention to the principles ofconstructing such algorithms as the methods for approximating discontinuous functions with approximately specified arguments. In this way it proved possible to define the limits of applicability of regularization techniques.
Contemporary societal problems are complex, intractable, and costly. Aiming to ameliorate them, social scientists formulate policies and programs, and conduct research testing the efficacy of the interventions. All too often the results are disappointing; partly because the theories guiding these studies are inappropriate, the study designs are flawed, and the empirical databases covering their research questions are sparse. This book confronts these problems of research by following this process: analyze the roots of the social problem both theoretically and empirically; formulate a study design that captures the nuances of the problem; gather appropriate empirical data operationalizing the study design; model these data using multilevel statistical methods to uncover potential causes and any biases to their implied effects; use the results by refining theory and by formulating evidence-based policy recommendations for implementation and testing.
Applying this process, the chapters focus on these social problems: political extremism; global human development; violence against religious minorities; computerization of work; reform of urban schools; and the utilization and costs of health care. Because these chapters exemplify the usefulness of multilevel modeling for the quantification of effects and causal inference, they can serve as vivid exemplars for the teaching of students. This use of examples reverses the usual procedure for introducing statistical methods. Rather than beginning with a new statistical model bearing on statistical theory and searching for illustrative data, each core chapter begins with a pressing social problem. The specific problem motivates theoretical analysis, gathering of relevant data, and application of appropriate statistical procedures. Readers can use the provided data sets and syntaxes to replicate, critique, and advance the analyses, thereby developing their ability to produce future applications of multilevel modeling.
The chapters address the multilevel data structures of these social problems by grouping observations on the micro units (level-1) by more macro-units (level-2) (e.g., school children are grouped by their classroom), and by conducting multilevel statistical modeling in contextual, longitudinal, and meta-analyses. Each core chapter applies a qualitative typology to nest the variance between the macro units, thereby crafting a "mixed-methods" approach that combines qualitative attributes with quantitative measures
Semiotics is the science of signs: graphical, such as pictures; verbal (writing or sounds); or others such as body gestures and clothes. Computer semiotics studies the special nature of computer-based signs and how they function in use. This 1991 book is based on ten years of empirical research on computer usage in work situations and contains material from a course taught by the author. It introduces basic traditional semiotic concepts and adapts them so that they become useful for analysing and designing computer systems in their symbolic context of work. It presents a novel approach to the subject, rich in examples, in that it is both theoretically systematic and practical. The author refers to and reinterprets techniques already used so that readers can deepen their understanding. In addition, it offers new techniques and a consistent perspective on computer systems that is particularly appropriate for new hardware and software (e.g. hypermedia) whose main functions are presentation and communication. This is a highly important work whose influence will be wide and longlasting.
L.A. Galin's book on contact problems is a remarkable work. Actually there are two books: the first, published in 1953 deals with contact problems in the classical theory of elasticity; this is the one that was translated into English in 1961. The second book, published in 1980, included the first, and then had new sections on contact problems for viscoelastic materials, and rough contact problems; this section has not previously been translated into English. In this new translation, the original text and the mathematical analysis have been completely revised, new material has been added, and the material appearing in the 1980 Russian translation has been completely rewritten. In addition there are three essays by students of Galin, bringing the analysis up to date.
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