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Notes And Problems In Applied General Equilibrium Economics
"General-equilibrium" refers to an analytical approach which looks at the economy as a complete system of inter-dependent components (industries, households, investors, governments, importers and exporters). "Applied" means that the primary interest is in systems that can be used to provide quantitative analysis of economic policy problems in particular countries. Reflecting the authors' belief in the models as vehicles for practical policy analysis, a considerable amount of material on data and solution techniques as well as on theoretical structures has been included. The sequence of chapters follows what is seen as the historical development of the subject.
The book is directed at graduate students and professional economists who may have an interest in constructing or applying general equilibrium models. The exercises and readings in the book provide a comprehensive introduction to applied general equilibrium modeling. To enable the reader to acquire hands-on experience with computer implementations of the models which are described in the book, a companion set of diskettes is available.
Quotient Space Based Problem Solving
Quotient Space Based Problem Solving provides an in-depth treatment of hierarchical problem solving, computational complexity, and the principles and applications of multi-granular computing, including inference, information fusing, planning, and heuristic search. Drawing upon years of academic research and using numerous examples and illustrative applications, the authors, Ling Zhang and Bo Zhang provide a unique guide to computerized problem solving and granular computing. This book is a valuable guide to graduate students, research fellows, and academics specializing in artificial intelligence or concerned with computerized problem solving and granular computing. It explains the theory of hierarchical problem solving, its computational complexity, and discusses the principle and applications of multi-granular computing. It describes a human-like, theoretical framework using quotient space theory, that will be of interest to researchers in artificial intelligence. It provides many applications and examples in the engineering and computer science area. It includes complete coverage of planning, heuristic search and coverage of strictly mathematical models.
Engineering Problem Solving With C++
For one/two semester courses in Engineering and Computer Science at the freshman/sophomore level.
Engineering Problem Solving With C++, Fourth Edition provides a clear, concise introduction to engineering problem solving with C++ as well as the object-oriented features of the C++ programming language. The authors’ proven five-step problem solving methodology is presented and then incorporated in every chapter of the text. The chapters in this text are designed to give the instructor flexibility in the ordering of topics with chapter topics covering the essentials of mathematical computations, character data, control structures, functions, arrays, classes, and pointers. Outstanding engineering and scientific applications are used throughout; all applications are centered around the theme of engineering challenges in the 21st century with an emphasis on incorporating real-world engineering and scientific examples and problems.
Multithreaded Computer Architecture
Multithreaded computer architecture has emerged as one of the most promising and exciting avenues for the exploitation of parallelism. This new field represents the confluence of several independent research directions which have united over a common set of issues and techniques. Multithreading draws on recent advances in dataflow, RISC, compiling for fine-grained parallel execution, and dynamic resource management. It offers the hope of dramatic performance increases through parallel execution for a broad spectrum of significant applications based on extensions to `traditional' approaches.
Multithreaded Computer Architecture is divided into four parts, reflecting four major perspectives on the topic. Part I provides the reader with basic background information, definitions, and surveys of work which have in one way or another been pivotal in defining and shaping multithreading as an architectural discipline. Part II examines key elements of multithreading, highlighting the fundamental nature of latency and synchronization. This section presents clever techniques for hiding latency and supporting large synchronization name spaces. Part III looks at three major multithreaded systems, considering issues of machine organization and compilation strategy. Part IV concludes the volume with an analysis of multithreaded architectures, showcasing methodologies and actual measurements.
Multithreaded Computer Architecture: A Summary of the State of the Art is an excellent reference source and may be used as a text for advanced courses on the subject.
The Problem Of Estimation
As Reviewed by Irving Fisher
Mr. Walsh is the author of "The Measurement of General Exchange Value," one of the chief classics on the subject of index numbers. The present book is partly a condensation of "The Measurement of General Exchange Value," and partly an extension of its ideas to other problems than that of index numbers.
Nevertheless the chief interest in the present volume centers, I think, in the author's discussion of index numbers. It is largely taken up with a discussion of the geometric mean as contrasted with other means.
Mr. Walsh has delved deep in the lore to be found in libraries on the subject and has unearthed an interesting old discussion of Galileo on "the problem of estimation."
Mr. Walsh begins his book by giving the arguments of Galileo and his opponent, which are very entertaining. This old problem reads "if a horse worth 100 pounds is estimated by one person at 1000 and by another at 10, which of these two estimates is the less erroneous, or are they equally erroneous?" According to one view 10 is much nearer the truth (100) than is 1000, the difference in the first case being 90 and in the second, 900. According to another view they are equally distant, one being 10 times as large and the other 10 times as little! Galileo took the latter view and Walsh approves.
In the part devoted to index numbers, Walsh (page 102) confirms my views expressed in the March Number of the Quarterly Publications of the American Statistical Association on the best formula for an index number although his method of arriving at the result is quite different from my own. It is interesting to observe that Allyn Young of Harvard in the August number of the Quarterly Journal of Economics in an article entitled "The Measurement of Changes of the General Price Level," has reached the same result from a different angle.
Walsh's argument is largely that the formula in question comes nearest to satisfying Westergaard's test, that is the so-called circular test that any index number should, if calculated from one year to another and from the second to a third and so on in a chain, give the same result as though calculated directly from the original base to the last year.
In my forthcoming book on Index Numbers, to be published by the Pollak Foundation for Economic Research, I propose to show that, while index numbers which come near to satisfying Westergaard's test are better than those which fall far short of satisfying it, nevertheless there is an irreducible minimum of discrepancy which is not only inevitable in good index numbers but commendable. Much of Walsh's work in index numbers has been in the search for a formula which will completely fulfill Westergaard's test. The truth is that no such formula exists; at least not one which has different weights for each year to year comparison.
But the search for such fulfillment, while in vain in the sense of being unsuccessful in its object, has nevertheless not been fruitless; for Walsh has laid secure foundations in this subject, which he was enabled to lay by virtue of his search for the impossible.
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