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Contemporary societal problems are complex, intractable, and costly. Aiming to ameliorate them, social scientists formulate policies and programs, and conduct research testing the efficacy of the interventions. All too often the results are disappointing; partly because the theories guiding these studies are inappropriate, the study designs are flawed, and the empirical databases covering their research questions are sparse. This book confronts these problems of research by following this process: analyze the roots of the social problem both theoretically and empirically; formulate a study design that captures the nuances of the problem; gather appropriate empirical data operationalizing the study design; model these data using multilevel statistical methods to uncover potential causes and any biases to their implied effects; use the results by refining theory and by formulating evidence-based policy recommendations for implementation and testing.
Applying this process, the chapters focus on these social problems: political extremism; global human development; violence against religious minorities; computerization of work; reform of urban schools; and the utilization and costs of health care. Because these chapters exemplify the usefulness of multilevel modeling for the quantification of effects and causal inference, they can serve as vivid exemplars for the teaching of students. This use of examples reverses the usual procedure for introducing statistical methods. Rather than beginning with a new statistical model bearing on statistical theory and searching for illustrative data, each core chapter begins with a pressing social problem. The specific problem motivates theoretical analysis, gathering of relevant data, and application of appropriate statistical procedures. Readers can use the provided data sets and syntaxes to replicate, critique, and advance the analyses, thereby developing their ability to produce future applications of multilevel modeling.
The chapters address the multilevel data structures of these social problems by grouping observations on the micro units (level-1) by more macro-units (level-2) (e.g., school children are grouped by their classroom), and by conducting multilevel statistical modeling in contextual, longitudinal, and meta-analyses. Each core chapter applies a qualitative typology to nest the variance between the macro units, thereby crafting a "mixed-methods" approach that combines qualitative attributes with quantitative measures
Recent years have been characterized by the increasing amountofpublications in the field ofso-called ill-posed problems. This is easilyunderstandable because we observe the rapid progress of a relatively young branch ofmathematics, ofwhich the first results date back to about 30 years ago. By now, impressive results have been achieved both in the theory ofsolving ill-posed problems and in the applicationsofalgorithms using modem computers. To mention just one field, one can name the computer tomography which could not possibly have been developed without modem tools for solving ill-posed problems. When writing this book, the authors tried to define the place and role of ill- posed problems in modem mathematics. In a few words, we define the theory of ill-posed problems as the theory of approximating functions with approximately given arguments in functional spaces. The difference between well-posed and ill- posed problems is concerned with the fact that the latter are associated with discontinuous functions. This approach is followed by the authors throughout the whole book. We hope that the theoretical results will be of interest to researchers working in approximation theory and functional analysis. As for particular algorithms for solving ill-posed problems, the authors paid general attention to the principles ofconstructing such algorithms as the methods for approximating discontinuous functions with approximately specified arguments. In this way it proved possible to define the limits of applicability of regularization techniques.
"General-equilibrium" refers to an analytical approach which looks at the economy as a complete system of inter-dependent components (industries, households, investors, governments, importers and exporters). "Applied" means that the primary interest is in systems that can be used to provide quantitative analysis of economic policy problems in particular countries. Reflecting the authors' belief in the models as vehicles for practical policy analysis, a considerable amount of material on data and solution techniques as well as on theoretical structures has been included. The sequence of chapters follows what is seen as the historical development of the subject.
The book is directed at graduate students and professional economists who may have an interest in constructing or applying general equilibrium models. The exercises and readings in the book provide a comprehensive introduction to applied general equilibrium modeling. To enable the reader to acquire hands-on experience with computer implementations of the models which are described in the book, a companion set of diskettes is available.
In spring this year it will be 35 years since I began to study rotation technique as applied to radiology. In 1947 the name rotation radiography was publicly adopted for the application of this technique to roentgenography. Since then our study has revealed that the technique in presenting the axial transverse cross section figure is valuable not only in diagnosis but also in radiotherapy. Our books on "Conformation Radiotherapy - Rotation Technique as Applied to Radiography and Radiotherapy of Cancer" and" An Atlas of Axial TransÂ verse Tomography and its Clinical Application" were published by Acta RadioÂ logica, Stockholm in 1965 and Springer Verlag in 1969 respectively. Having excellent contrast resolution computed tomography can be considered an advanÂ ced type of rotation radiography. With this in mind I planned to edit and publish the Illustrated Computer Tomography as the latest presentation in a series of publications on rotation radiography. The editor would like to express his deep appreciation to the contributors to this book as well as to the publishers Shujunsha, Japan and Springer Verlag. Spring 1983 SHINJI TAKAHASHI Contents Introduction. By S. TAKAHASHI . . . . . . . 1 Part I. Basic Aspects of Computed Tomography Debut and Spread. By S. TAKAHASHI.
Addressing the issue of behaviour problems in the early years, this book offers early years practitioners a practical and well-researched resource covering subjects such as:
This resource is based on the author's own experience and research in early years practice and she uses a range of practical tips, strategies, activity ideas, forms and checklists to convey her message.
Papatheodorou shows that successful early identification and management of behaviour problems requires informed practice that takes into account existing theoretical and conceptual works. All professionals working in an early years environment will find this an invaluable read.
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